Jan Sanders van HemessanMany people believed that epilepsy was caused by a stone in the head and was curable if the stone was surgically removed. In this painting a stone cutter is working at a fair. Hanging behind the woman assisting are stones that have already been removed advertising the skill of the stone cutter. The man in the corner is wringing his hands in fear, perhaps beseeching God, and seems to be the next patient. This operation was usually performed on the street, markets, fairs, where it served as a freak show for the crowd.
The Surgeon or The Stone Cutter, 1550